Railroad Line Forums
Railroad Line Forums
Home | Profile | Register | Active Topics | Members | Search | FAQ
Save Password
Forgot your Password?

 All Forums
 Model Railroad Forums
 Startin' from Scratch
 New York Mill - Modeled in Balsa Foam
 New Topic  Reply to Topic
Previous Page
Author Previous Topic Topic Next Topic
Page: of 32


4229 Posts

Posted - 12/04/2019 :  10:50:46 PM  Show Profile  Reply with Quote
Hi Kris,

Reading through your continued tutorial has sparked my interest in this great thread again. It's nice to have you posting again.
You always provide informative material.
On another subject, I haven't forgotten your questions to me and I will address those soon.
Glad to see you here.

Go to Top of Page


7214 Posts

Posted - 12/08/2019 :  03:22:19 AM  Show Profile  Reply with Quote
Mounting and Final Weathering of the Chimneys

A) 2-part 5-minute epoxy
B) Vallejo Model Color Dark Grey #70-994 or Black Grey #70-862
C) Dust (finely powered clay soil, light tan hue) http://www.rustall.com/main.html
D) Acid Brush 1/2 inch wide https://www.micromark.com/48-Disposable-Brushes?gclid=CjwKCAiAuK3vBRBOEiwA1IMhuggzi30JmZB5i5vjItwhIpBEYCVQRGui0ywGcMGilyuoXiUlQ3RWnhoCXP8QAvD_BwE
E) Liquid Leading (optional) https://plaidonline.com/products/gallery-glass-liquid-leading-black-2-oz
F) Extra-Fine Emory Board (Emory board for baby fingernails.)
G) Standard Emory Board
H) #240 grit Sandpaper
I) Vallejo Panzer Aces Dark Rubber #306 https://www.michtoy.com/michtoy_search_product.php?Vendor_ID=Vallejo&Series=Vallejo%20Panzer%20Aces%20Paint&view_mode=thumbnails
J) Vallejo Panzer Aces Light Rubber #305https://www.michtoy.com/michtoy_search_product.php?Vendor_ID=Vallejo&Series=Vallejo%20Panzer%20Aces%20Paint&view_mode=thumbnails
K) Dr. PH Martins Synchromatic Transparent Watercolor Payne's Grey #19 (NOTE: This is not a lightfast artist material. Substitute a professional tube watercolor product, like Windsor Newton, and use diluted pigment for a lightfast medium.) https://www.docmartins.com/collections/synchromatic-transparent-bottles
L) Dr. PH Martins Synchromatic Transparent Watercolor Stone Grey #31. (Reference above note for Dr. PH Martins Synchromatic Transparent Watercolors.)
M) Fan Brush #2 Synthetic (I use a Silverwhite) https://www.thebrushguys.com/cgi-bin/sc-v4/proddisp.pl?client=firesaleguys&catid=2&PRID=1625
N) 1/4 inch Shader Brush - Soft bristle (I use Pro Art Shader #8.) https://www.amazon.com/PRO-ART-Piece-Brush-Shader/dp/B0027AAJLQ/ref=sr_1_2?keywords=pro-art+shader+brush&qid=1576353071&s=arts-crafts&sr=1-2
O) Round #6 Synthetic Brush (I used an Artist Loft #6) https://www.michaels.com/white-synthetic-brushes-fundamentals-by-artists-loft/10122057.html
P) Liner Brush 20/0 https://www.jerrysartarama.com/micro-mini-brushes?gclid=Cj0KCQiArdLvBRCrARIsAGhB_szzvMVXwRn6V4hnKf8JUovl-sQ1H0tqegQNOr8mv6GAwQhd9W6a97caAhwCEALw_wcB

Mounting the Chimneys:

The mounting of the chimneys to the main roof followed basic steps of gluing the castings into place.
1) Test fit, again, the castings to the roof angle to insure the roof angle and the base of the castings match with the castings 90 degree vertical on all sides.
2) Lightly mark the castings footprint locations on the roof.
3) Mix-up a small amount of 5-minute epoxy, adding one or two drops of the dark grey Vallejo paint to the mix. (Start with just one drop of paint and add the second only if necessary.) Add the paint prior to mixing the epoxy. Epoxy is used in this application due to the weight of the metal castings and the reflective property of the epoxy when dried. The thick mixture also contributes to the ability to form a tar seam around the base of the casting(s).
4) Add a small amount of mixed epoxy to the base of the chimney. Lightly touch and rotate the chimney on a scrap piece of wood or heavy paper, fully spreading the epoxy across the underside of the casting base. Also remove any large excess of epoxy prior to placement on the roof.
5) Place the casting on the roof with a light rocking motion to press excess epoxy from under the casting, forming a tar seal around the base of the casting. If needed, tease the epoxy to form a uniform sized bead tar seal around the entire casting foot.
6) With the epoxy tar seal still tacky, but partially cured, lightly apply a light dusting of 'Dust' to the tar seal using a stippling motion. Use a cheap disposable brush (acid brush) for the dusting application. NOTE: If needed, apply Liquid Leading to form the tar seal and then apply the Dust prior to the Liquid Leading drying. Blow the excess dust from the chimney and allow the tar seal to fully dry.
7) When the epoxy has fully dried, lightly brush the tar seam and roof to remove any excess Dust using a soft brush. (I used a soft drafting brush.) Make sure to use a soft brush and only strokes from roof peak down. Note that weathering powders and/or soft pastels are not used to weather the tar seal. This is due to the difficulty in fully removing excess powder from the roof.

Mounted chimneys on the mill's roof.

-- KP --
Life is to short to build all of the models I want to.

Edited by - hon3_rr on 12/14/2019 6:35:12 PM
Go to Top of Page


11843 Posts

Posted - 12/08/2019 :  09:02:56 AM  Show Profile  Reply with Quote
Kris you nailed this.

What a great way to seal a chimney down and have the tar seal look so realistic.
A reference for sure on how to do it.

Excellent work as usual.


"And in the end, itís not the years in your life that count. It's the life in your years." A. Lincoln
Go to Top of Page

Michael Hohn

5580 Posts

Posted - 12/08/2019 :  10:17:32 AM  Show Profile  Visit Michael Hohn's Homepage  Reply with Quote
Yes, very useful instructions and the results are very realistic.
Go to Top of Page


7214 Posts

Posted - 12/08/2019 :  2:30:52 PM  Show Profile  Reply with Quote
Chimney Runoff Stains:

Most modelers would apply a thin black wash at the foot of the chimney and then pull the wash down the roof to represent the roof staining from the water runoff. This is a more than acceptable technique to represent the runoff stain, but I often wonder if there is a better technique which would make the stain appear more realistic to the viewers eye. Let's not forget, the roof is usually the first part of a structure viewers notice.

When one considers the real life runoff stain, you will note that the stain is composed of a dense base opaque material (soot) and a lighter, more translucent stain produced by the lime-water and lighter soot/grime material. This second compound has a much greater translucent quality than main dark soot runoff.

Now consider our coloring mediums used to replicate the runoff. Paint is usually opaque. We usually thin the paint into a wash, thus placing more distance between the paint pigment particles. Also, the general grind of the paint pigment comes into play. Different qualities of paint will often have different sized pigment grinds, with the 'craft' paints having a larger pigment particle grind than then higher quality model paints, which have a finer pigment grind. In addition, the quality of the pigments and binders also come into play. The end result is higher quality paints, like Vallejo Model Colors, have better coverage due to the number and quality of paint pigment particles in a given area. This results in a thinner layer of paint film to produce an opaque covering.

Most ink and watercolor hues have a property of being translucent when compared to paints. The issue here is that the pigment has been diffused into the solvent, and the volume of solvent makes the medium harder to control during application.

Suffice it to say, I could go into additional detail, but I'm sure you understand the essence of my ramblings.

I believe that a larger percentage of readers feel that this discussion is unnecessary, and in fact, is way overboard, to the extreme. And I totally agree... except for the contest modeler and layout modeler who has just a few highly detailed/weathered forefront models to assist in providing the illusion of highly detailed models throughout the entire layout.

Please remember this is a 'Sandbox' build, thus experimenting with ideas, materials and techniques is one of the primary goals of this build.

In reviewing pictures of soot runoff stains, I noticed a pattern of the taller, thinner or the stovepipe style of chimney has a V-shaped runoff stain. Wider based chimneys tend to exhibit an H-shaped runoff pattern. The V-shaped stain has a wider, downward tapering center dark soot stain pattern. Wider chimneys have two very thin, long dark soot stains flanked by the more the translucent-gray staining. There is also an area just below the base of the chimney which has the light grime soot staining.

I need to create dark soot stain lines parallel to the width of the chimney foot. These soot lines are also over a wider, more translucent soot stain, inside and outside of the dark soot runoff path. In addition, there also needs to be a translucent grim stain, in the shape of a tongue, about a third of the height of chimney, under the chimney base.

I'm currently working on a technique which may produce the desired effect...

-- KP --
Life is to short to build all of the models I want to.

Edited by - hon3_rr on 12/08/2019 2:46:15 PM
Go to Top of Page


5923 Posts

Posted - 12/10/2019 :  3:50:03 PM  Show Profile  Reply with Quote
Hi ya Kris', so nice to see you at the bench again... Goes without saying' excellent work and explanation of how the excellent work is accomplished'... Best wishes to you and yours for the holiday season'... [;-xmas]

ted :<)
Go to Top of Page


7214 Posts

Posted - 12/14/2019 :  5:13:05 PM  Show Profile  Reply with Quote
As always, thanks to all who took the time to comment, as well as to those who just dropped by to see what this week's novel has to say.

Chimney Runoff Stains: (Continued)

Prior to starting this description, let me please note that this is how I created the effect and the products/techniques employed. This is by no means the only process or products which may be utilized. My main goal in this description is to describe in detail the use of various techniques to emulate weathering, and to demonstrate techniques which will take advantage of the properties of layering color, translucent colors and the wicking properties of paper in the chimney water-runoff path.

To add a bit more physical weathering and increase the wicking property of paper in the water runoff path, I first roughed up the lower edges of the roofing paper, and in the process, provided a lighter tone of the paper surface in the water runoff path.

1) Using an extra-fine emery board and #240 grit sandpaper, lightly sand the lower edges of the rolled roofing using only upwards (towards the roof-peak) strokes to create a fine tearing and lifting of the roofing paper edges.
2) Using a standard emery board, which has been cut to match the width of the chimney base, lightly sand the water runoff path below the chimney. Sand the entire length of the runoff path from the chimney base to the bottom edge of the roof.

The water runoff path below the chimney. The light sanding representing physical wear will also assist in later applications of solvent to better wick the coloring pigments through the paper in addition to providing a lighter background shade of roofing material in the runoff path.

3) Using a 6" steel ruler, hold the ruler on edge against the chimney side, with most of the ruler blade extending down the roof. Draw a very light pencil line the length of the desired dark opaque soot line. Draw the pencil line on the inside (toward the chimney's center) of the ruler. Remember that these lines do not extend the entire length of the chimney unless the chimney is close to the bottom edge of the roof.
4) Follow the above steps to create a second line parallel to the width of the chimney, using the opposite side of the chimney to hold the ruler against. When marking the second line remember that the two dark soot lines will not be of equal length, so make your marks accordingly. I was unable to capture any picture of these marks due to my pencil marks are too light.

In the following steps, make sure to unload the paint brush prior to application by lightly touching the brush tip to a paper towel or rag.

5) Create a very thin dark soot line following the pencil marks. These lines are drawn from the chimney base down. To create this line, I used a 50:50 mix of Vallejo Dark Rubber and water. A #2 synthetic fan brush, held vertical so as to follow the thin pencil line, was used with light stippling strokes to place small dots of paint along the pencil line.
6) While the above paint is still wet, a 20/0 liner brush was used to create the dark soot lines. The brush was lightly loaded with the Dark Rubber paint mix and then drawn over the top of the dots, creating a line which is lightly uneven along it's edges. Remember to try to keep this line as thin as possible. Allow these lines to air dry for a few minutes. (approx. 5 minutes)
7) A 1/4-inch wide synthetic shader was then used to create the dark soot 'tongue' just below the chimney base. The brush was dipped into clear ETOH to fully load the brush, then lightly unloaded on a paper towel. The brush was then lightly loaded with the dark rubber mix. After again lightly unloading the brush, the dark soot coloring was applied using stippling strokes. Keep the paint fluid between the center of the dark soot lines. This dark soot colored area should be about 1/4 of the height of the chimney.
8) Using the well cleaned 1/4 inch shader and only clear ETOH, lightly unload the brush of excess ETOH. Use a stippling motion to apply the ETOH to the parallel dark soot lines. The ETOH will cause the soot paint to flair/soak into the roofing paper. Two or three brush loads of ETOH may be needed to completely cover the dark soot lines.
9) Wile the roof runoff is still damp, follow the same basic process again with a Light Rubber wash, starting with the fan brush, then liner brush, followed by the shader and ending with a small amount of ETOH applied to blend the colors. The wash was a 1:10 mix, Vallejo Light Rubber to water.
10) With the roof still damp, apply two thin lines of the Dark Rubber mix, following where the thin pencil dark soot lines were. Use the liner brush to create freehand straight lines.
11) Dip a soft bristle round #6 brush into clear ETOH and then into the Light Rubber wash. Lightly unload the brush and then apply then wash along the edge/eave bracing of the roof edge. (NOTE: This step may not be required/apply if the chimney is not close to the edge of the roof.) Use a rolling of the bristles/brush, applying the paint wash from the bottom to the top. This will create a lightly faded roof edge simulating where large volumes of runoff may have followed the roof edge. This technique may also be used if one wants to show where the roof fascia edge is located under the roofing material.
12) With the roof still damp from the prior steps, use the liner brush to apply a thin line of Payne's Grey watercolor. This is laid down directly over/on top of the dark grey soot line. Note that the colors will fade/blend as the paper roofing material dries. Note that you want to use the overall technique described in the above steps without allowing the roof to fully dry. Due to the use of acrylics, it is required that the acrylics remain wet. Once the acrylics dry, the paint is 'set' and additional blending of added paint layers becomes difficult.
13) Using a similar layering of color process, apply light lines of dark soot and wide runoff paths down walls and/or lower roofs which are directly below the chimneys runoff path. Follow these paths with a flooding of water and/or ETOH to dilute/fade the applied coloring. If a metal roof is below the chimney runoff path, make sure to use the liner brush to apply a fairly strong line of dark soot in the metal seams between roofing sections. A rolling motion of the brush against the underside of the metal seams may help provide a very very thin soot line. Flood with clear ETOH as needed to achieve the desired effect.
14) If needed, use a thin wash of Stone Grey watercolor (1:40 PH Martins to water). This wash is applied using a soft bristle #6 watercolor brush to apply the wash to the vertical wall surfaces. This will further lighten and fade any earlier applied coloring. The wash is applied with the wall held vertical, allowing the wash to run from the top of the wall to the wall base. Use a rag or paper towel to encourage excess wash to clear the wall surface. A light flooding of the area may be used to reduce the fading.

Notice that a translucent colored wash is used in this coloring/weathering process in the final steps. A translucent wash is one of the easiest ways to blend colors in my experience.

-- KP --
Life is to short to build all of the models I want to.

Edited by - hon3_rr on 12/14/2019 6:40:03 PM
Go to Top of Page
Page: of 32 Previous Topic Topic Next Topic  
Previous Page
 New Topic  Reply to Topic
Jump To:
Railroad Line Forums © 2000-19 Railroad Line Co. Go To Top Of Page
Steam was generated in 0.52 seconds. Snitz Forums 2000