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7237 Posts

Posted - 03/03/2016 :  01:38:43 AM  Show Profile  Reply with Quote
Again, thanks to all who have dropped by and the guys for the comments. I can't express how much the support means.

Let's return to the modeling....

Attach the clerestory roof components:
1) Glue the two roof components into place. I used yellow carpenters glue as a high volume of moisture (paints and washes) will be used the the weathering process and I wanted a water-proof adhesive. Make sure to verify your overhangs are equal on both ends of the clerestory. Also verify that the chute side roofing does not pass the front of the sides and hold the clerestory above the mill roof.

Complete clerestory roof ridge cap:
A) Pre-colored corrugated metal ribbons (2-pc.)

1) Add nail holes to the foil. Use a small pounce wheel to add nail holes to each edge of the corrugated metal foil ribbons. You want the nail holes to be about 1/32nd of an inch in from the foil edges. Try to keep the pounce wheel in a straight line as you punch the length of the strips so the nail holes will be straight on the roof.
2) Cut the corrugated metal ribbons into panels. Cut the two ribbons of corrugated metal foil into approximately 3 foot widths. These should be about the same widths as the metal roofing panels.
3) Bend the roof cap panels to fit. Determine where the bend in the clerestory roof cap ridge needs to be in the panels. Note that there will probably be a different width of panel needed on the two different roof slopes to properly overlay the roofing panels lower on the roof. Once the bend location is determined, place a mark on a solid object with a square edge so that you know the bending distance for the metal panels.
4) Apply the metal panels to the roof ridge. Work from the ends to the middle of the roof ridge. Align the two outside edge with the existing roof overhang edges as you will not be able to trim the metal later. Use a glue which will not be adversely affected by liquids (paint, washes, ETOH). I again used the yellow carpenters glue.
5) Cover the two clerestory side long window corners with metal panels. If you left enough overhang from the siding process, you can fold the foil around the corner(s) and glue into place. I had one corner of each type so I could review/compare the completed corners for future builds. The object is to completely cover any exposed matboard sub-roof material.

Assembled clerestory in position on mill roof.

Attach the main mill roof:
A) 5-minute epoxy.
B) Delta Ceramcoat Asbestos (or other dark grey-black color.)

The main roof is the next component to be added to the mill assembly. Even though steps were taken to limit warping of the matboard, there is still some warping of the roof. As there is a very small surface area for attaching the roof to the wall tops, a very strong adhesive is required. This is why I choose 5-minute epoxy. The epoxy is not only strong once set, but is gap filling and can be colored to represent tar.

1) Make the adhesive. Mix up the 5-minute epoxy per package instructions. Color the mixed epoxy with a small amount of the asphalt colored acrylic.
2) Add glue to the wall tops. Apply the epoxy to the top of the mill walls where the roof sits. This will be the top face of the 4x4's which sit on top of the mill walls.
3) Glue the roof down. Place the mill roof into position and allow the epoxy to cure with the roof under substantial weight. Make sure to verify the roof overhang is correct on all sides and that there are no spaces between the roof and the 4x4's.
--HINT: If the epoxy cures too fast during the application process, quickly use Aleene's Original Tacky Glue to secure the roof into position. The Aleene's product can be quickly applied and any excess glue weeping can be removed with a corner of a damp rag prior to the glue drying. I had to use this maneuver to attach the roof. With the application of the epoxy, I distinctly recall why I disdain 5-minute epoxy.
4) Verify that the roof is fully glued into position. If you determine that there is a gap between the roof and the top of the wall which needs to be addressed, use the Aleene's Tacky Glue to bond the roof into place. Use clamps to hold the roof in position while the adhesive dries.

Clamps used to address gaps between the roof and wall seam while adhesive dries. Note the use of a wood strip and scrap styrene plate to prevent damage to the roof surface and balsa foam base.

Waterwheel house and clerestory in place on a flat roof! YaHooo... You can also see some of the watercoloring 'grime' base (next step) on the clerestory roof.

Weather the clerestory structure:
A) Vallejo Model Color Burnt Cad. Red #70814 (Diluted 6:4 drops, paint:thinner)
B) Vallejo Thinner #061
C) Dr. Ph. Martins's Synchromatic Transparent Watercolor ink, Paynes's Grey #19 (Diluted 6:1, water:ink) http://www.artsupplywarehouse.com/finelineDisplay.php?id=260065
D) Rustall liquid rust. http://www.rustall.com/product-info.html

1) Kill the exposed foil highlights. Paint all the exposed foil with the cad. red diluted paint using a small brush. Insure to color the exposed foil edges around all of the eaves from the foil trimming process. Use the same techniques as used on the stone office wall when applying the paint.
2) Add a dark watercolor base for the grime to accumulate on. This is the coloring step which I hope will strongly contribute later to the 'grime' which DaveE referenced in his earlier comment. Using the diluted Payne's grey watercolor, flush the entire roof with the Payne's grey wash. (Note that I diluted the watercolor per my comment earlier in this thread.) Hold the roof vertical, with the metal panels upside down, when applying the wash. The object here is to trap a large volume of wash in the roofing seam lines. Allow excess wash to drain/wick away on a paper towel or soft rag. Note that the Payne's grey wash was applied prior to the cad. red paint fully drying to assist in the blending process as the two mediums dry. The wash was applied with a soft 1/4 inch chisel brush using a stippling stroke. Allow to dry.
3) Apply a rusting coat. I applied the Rustall, I used a soft #4 sable brush with a stippling motion. The roof was standing at about a 60 degree angle so that the Rust-All product would run down the roof like rain water. A paper towel is placed below the bottom edge to wick away excess weathering solution. The roof was placed as near to a 90 degree angle as possible while drying. I allowed the first application of Rustall to thoroughly dry prior to applying a second coat.
4) Apply the Rustall to the clerestory sides, holding the sides vertical so excess wash will flow as water would. Use a paper towel or soft rag to wick away excess wash by holding the base edges against the rag.

4) Once the roof is flooded with the second Rustall wash and the excess wash removed, return the roof to it's normal orientation.

Clerestory roof showing base weathering applications.

Notice how the Payne's grey watercolor has accentuated and underscored the horizontal roof seams.

Add rust highlights and smoke stack grime:
A) Powdered soft pastels mixed to create a light orange-red color.
B) Rustall
-- a) Liquid rust.
-- b)Deadflat solution or flat acrylic matte medium.
C) Bragdon weathering powders. http://www.bragdonent.com/smpic/item4.htm
-- a.)FF-66 Dust Bowl Brown.
-- b.)FF-67 Grimy Gray.
-- c.)FF-68 Ash.

1) Apply rust highlights. Using a soft #1 round brush, dust a light rust colored powdered pastel mix onto the roof cap seam and the next horizontal panel seam down. Spot dust at random some vertical seam lines lower on the roof. Do this for both sides of the roof.
2) Blend the rust pastel onto the roof. Using a 1-inch trim paint brush, blend the pastels into the roof and seams. The first stroke is top down to pull the pastels down for water streaking. Then use vertical up and down strokes to further blend the pastels and push some pastel into the panel seams. Make all brush strokes vertical, no horizontal strokes.
3) Apply rust highlights and streaking to the clerestory sides. Apply the pastel rust mix to the sides of the clerestory using the #1 soft round brush. Apply the pastels along the top edge of the wall.
4) Blend the rust pastels on the sides. Using a 1-inch wide brush, pull the powdered pastels down the sides of the wall. Do both side walls.
5) Use Rustall to affix the pastels to the roof. Apply the Rustall liquid rust using a #1 round a a stippling stroke across the roof ridge caps. Use top down vertical strokes to pull the Rustall down the roof to create rust streaks and to set the soft pastels.
6) Use the Rustall on both sides of the clerestory roof sections.
7) Apply the Rustall to the clerestory sides. Using the #1 soft round brush, stipple the Rustall just under the eave along the top of the wall. Use the brush to pull the Rustall down the sides in a streaking manner. Use a paper towel or soft rag to wick away excess Rustall away from the base of the wall.
8) Allow the Rustall to thoroughly dry.

Apply the lighter colored weathering powders to represent soot/grime:
Weathering powders instead of soft pastels were chosen due to the need to have the powder deposit in the panel seam lines. This is to represent the soot and grime emitted from the smoke stacks of the mill.

Note that there is a need to apply the weathering powders sparingly as weathering powders are not as forgiving as soft pastels. The built in adhesive in weathering powders make the medium much more difficult to remove so care must be exercised int the placement of the weather powder during the dusting step.
1) Apply the base weathering powder. Apply the Dust Bowl Brown weathering powder using a 1-inch wide fan brush. Lightly dip the brush into the weathering powder. Flick the brush handle a few times to knock excess powder off of the brush.
2) Holding the brush vertical along the seam line just above (approximately 1/4 inch) the ridge cap horizontal seam line, lightly tap the top of the brush handle. Small amounts of powder will fall from the brush along the seam. Move the fan brush along the horizontal seam(s) as you continue to tap the brush handle. Do not flick the brush handle as the powder will not fall vertically, but will be spread across the roof surface. When no more powder drops from the brush, lightly pat the brush against the seam line to deposit the remaining powder in the brush.
3) Continue using the above technique to deposit the Dust Bowl Brown powder at random along the horizontal roof seam lines.
4) Blend the weathering powder into the roof. Blend the weathering powder using upward vertical brush strokes with the fan brush. Brush only from the bottom to the top of the roof. Do not brush top down. The object is to deposit powder in the horizontal seams.
5) Apply the Dust Bowl Brown weathering powder to the clerestory sides. Using the fan brush, again load the brush with a small amount of weathering powder. Lightly place the powder about 2/3rds of the way up the wall following the top wall angle. Brush the powder up the wall using medium pressure. Again, using medium pressure, pull the excess powder vertically down the wall. Continue the vertical strokes until the powder is distributed or excess powder is removed from the wall.
6) Do both side walls.
7) Apply the Dust Bowl Brown weathering powder to the long window wall. Apply a small amount of weathering powder at about mid-wall between the windows using one corner of the fan brush. Push/pull the powder up to the top of the wall. Then pull the powder down to the base of the wall. Use the brush to pull/distribute powder over the window tops by pulling excess powder. Do the same under the windows.
8) Handle the roof gently to avoid shaking loose the powder which has been pushed into the seams between the metal panels.

Clerestory roof showing Dust Bowl Brown weathering powder applied to one side.

Close-up of Dust Bowl Brown weathering powder in roofing seams.

9) Repeat the weathering powder application process with the additional weather powder colors. Apply the weathering powders in the following order:
-- a.) Dust Bowl Brown.
-- b.) Ash.
-- c.) Grimy Gray.

Weathering powders applied. Note how powders have been concentrated on top of the Payne's grey wash in the horizontal seam lines.

Clerestory siding with weathering powders applied.

Set the weathering powders:
A) Rustall Deadflat solution or flat acrylic matte medium.
B) Americana acrylic paint, Burnt Sienna #DA-063.
C) Folkart acrylic paint, Camel #593.

1) Apply the clear acrylic matte medium (Rustall Deadflat) using a 1/2-inch wide synthetic medium stiff brush. Apply the matte medium to all surfaces using vertical top down strokes. Use a paper towel to wick away excess medium from the bottom edges of all surfaces.
2) Touch-up any exposed foil edges with the Burnt Sienna using a small 3/0 soft round brush.

Clerestory siding with weathering completed.

All three weathered metal roof with subtle differences.

Different angle of all three metal roofs

This gives a feel for how the 'soot and grime' appears in the roofing seams. Sorry, not the best picture.

As a side note on hiding boo-boos: I had a small glue blob under the long wall window eave. Rather than try to remove it, I used the Folkart "Camel" color to paint the glue blob to a light beige. I now have a bee's or wasps nest under the eave. If some contest judge claims that there are glue blobs, I can counter that it's a modeled bee's nest.

As always, I'm always happy to hear comments on the good, bad and ugly.

-- KP --
Life is to short to build all of the models I want to.

Edited by - hon3_rr on 04/03/2016 10:30:26 AM
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7237 Posts

Posted - 03/03/2016 :  11:49:14 AM  Show Profile  Reply with Quote
As I was not to happy with the photo shoot under the lights last night. Therefore, I obtained a few pictures this morning in a bit of diffused sunlight to help show the true colors and 'soot/grime' effect a bit better. The last picture shows the soot/grime effect obtained. These are pretty representative of the true colors and what the weathering really looks like. I will note in advance that I concur that the roofs are a bit on the dark side. But I wanted the roofs to really contrast with the stone walls in a dramatic fashion.

The first two pictures also demonstrate the effects of the amount of pressure used on the pounce wheel as discussed earlier in the thread.

As always, please feel free to comment.

-- KP --
Life is to short to build all of the models I want to.

Edited by - hon3_rr on 03/03/2016 12:04:24 PM
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8509 Posts

Posted - 03/03/2016 :  11:50:59 AM  Show Profile  Reply with Quote
Love it! The Payne's Grey wash did a great job getting underneath and along the edges of the panels, exactly where (grey) ashes would collect with natural weathering. (Payne's Grey, by the way, is also a good color to use for 'scale black' cloth on Little People.) It also blends well with the color tones on the tarpaper.

(I'd submit this build for the discussion on whether Model Railroading is 'art' as an argument "for".)


Modeling 1890s (because the voices in my head told me to)
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12637 Posts

Posted - 03/03/2016 :  12:01:01 PM  Show Profile  Reply with Quote
Now that's what I call a perfect weathering of roofs.
Kris a wonderful job on that and as usual your great tutorial.


"And in the end, itís not the years in your life that count. It's the life in your years." A. Lincoln
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12973 Posts

Posted - 03/03/2016 :  1:19:34 PM  Show Profile  Reply with Quote
Beautiful scratch work.......nice coloring too!
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7237 Posts

Posted - 03/07/2016 :  7:22:22 PM  Show Profile  Reply with Quote
Thanks Gentlemen for the kind words. Much appreciated.

Let's wrap up the clerestory.

Add the Clerestory Roof:

Add fascia to clerestory roof:
A) Previously colored 2x6 stripwood, 12-inch length, 5-pc.
B) Light A-I wash.
C) Americana Burnt Sienna #DA063
D) Soft pastels used to color metal roofing and siding.
E) Plaid Gallery Glass Liquid Leading, Black, #16025 https://www.plaidonline.com/gallery-glass-liquid-leading-black-2-oz/79/16025/product.htm
F) Rustall Deadflat

1) Add fascia above one clerestory side on the long window wall side of the roof. Mark and cut from the stock 2x6 a strip of wood to fit under the roofing and against the matboard sub-roof. You will want to cut the 2x6 so that it is approximately 1/2 inch (actual) longer than required so that the wood extends past the roof line edge.
2) With the roof on rags to protect the foil surface, use a drafting triangle edge to push any bent roofing edges to be flat with the top roof surface.
3) Place the 2x6 against the matboard edge and note the roof slope angle under the roof peak. Use the vertical corrugation lines of the foil to assist in obtaining a 90 degree vertical to the mill wall cut of the 2x6.
4) Cut or sand the 2x6 to obtain the correct angle for the 2x6 end under the roof peak.
5) Lid stain the angle cut end of the 2x6.
6) Glue the 2x6 to the matboard sub-roof Use a piece of square scrap wood to help position the fascia board against the matboard and metal roofing. The use of wood as a tool will help prevent scratching of the weathered siding and foil roofing edges. Allow the excess 2x6 fascia board to extend past the roofing. Allow the fascia board adhesive to dry.
7) Repeat the above six steps to add the fascia to the chute side of the roof.

Clerestory end showing how fascia boards extend past roofing edges. Also note the staining of the 2x6 board ends making the butt joint under the roof peak.

Add fascia to the clerestory long window wall eave:
1) Prior to installing the fascia over the the long window wall, you will need to flatten/straighten any bent roofing. This is done by using a drafting triangle edge to push the foil back into position. The roof is placed upside down on a protective rag while straightening any foil.
2) To make the fascia along the long walls use two pieces of 2x6 stock. Cut approximately 4 inches or about a third of the length from one stock 2x6. The measurement is not critical. You just don't want the two fascia boards forming a butt joint in the center of the long window wall.
3) Square and stain the two ends of the length of 2x6 just cut.
4) Glue the fascia board into place, butting one end against the fascia board extending from the side edge installed earlier.
5) Glue a full-length of stock 2x6 into place along the remaining length of the window wall. Allow the excess 2x6 to extend past the roofing edge. Make sure that the butt joint is tight. Again, use a piece of scrap square wood to assist in positioning and pressing the 2x6 into place against the roofing underside and the edge of the matboard. Allow to dry.

Note how the fascia butts against the end fascia and the butt-joint between the two pieces of 2x6 creating the fascia along the long window wall. I also measured and cut the 2x6 boards so that the butt-joint would be above a dark streak in the corrugated siding to further draw the eye to the joint.

Closeup of the corner fascia joint.

Fascia along the length of the long window wall. Note the 2x6 fascia extending past the roof line on the left side of the picture.

Hint: If you have a bowed 2x6 length of stripwood, cut the fascia board in half or smaller lengths prior to gluing into place. This will provide a straight run of the stripwood strip. Just remember to lid stain each end of the sticks forming the butt-joint(s).

Add fascia to the clerestory chute wall eave:
1) Using the same five steps as noted for the long window wall, install the fascia board across the chute wall eave.

Remove excess fascia board:
Hint: It may help to place the structure on a rubber mat, like those used for storing glassware, to prevent the structure from moving. http://www.stacksandstacks.com/shelf-liner-grip-it

1) Remove excess 2x6 from the long window wall. Using flush or cuticle nippers, remove the excess 2x6. Cut the 2x6 flush to the matboard sub-roof to form a square corner. Try to keep the cut vertical to the clerestory wall.
2) Using the process above, remove the excess 2x6 from the long chute wall side eave.

Add fascia to the remaining side eave:
1) Using the same six step procedure as on the opposite side wall, measure, cut and glue the two fascia boards to the remaining eave. Again, allow the 2x6 to extend past the two ends of the roofing.

Trim the excess fascia from the clerestory roof:
1) Use flush or cuticle nippers to remove the excess fascia from the two clerestory sides. With the clerestory sitting on the mill roof, use the nippers to remove the excess 2x6 from the four fascia strips extending past the roofing. Trim the fascia flush with the clerestory roofing edge, making sure the cut is vertical with the stone wall faces.

Flush nippers used to trim excess fascia from the clerestory side eaves.

2) Touch-up the cut ends of the fascia boards with a light A-I wash.
3) Touch-up any foil edges with the Burnt Sienna paint and powdered soft pastels.

Fascia on the clerestory is cut to meet the roof on the chute wall side of the clerestory roof.

Glue clerestory to mill roof:
1) Glue the clerestory to the mill roof using Aleene's Original Tacky glue. Apply the tacky glue only on the clerestory base support pieces located on the two side walls and the long window wall. Using the marks made earlier, glue the clerestory in place. Allow to dry.

Add simulated roofing tar to clerestory base:
A) Plaid Gallery Glass Liquid Leading, black #16025
B) Sewing machine needle, .040 diameter
C) Rustall Deadflat.
D) Soft pastels used to color metal roofing and siding.

It is common to use 5-minute epoxy to simulate roofing tar seams and joints. The issues of using 5-minute epoxy are the difficulty in application, limited working time and inherent strings/cobweb threads of epoxy. It is also somewhat difficult to obtain a smooth and consistent sized joint seam.

To address the issues found with epoxy, Liquid Leading is the medium chosen to fill the gap/seam at the base of the clerestory. This acrylic product can be smoothed with an application of water on a damp brush, rag or Q-tip. In addition, a small amount of water can be used to thin the product the the consistency necessary for the task at hand. It comes pre-colored and dries to have a reflective index similar to old roofing tar. I picked up on the use of this product from MikeC.

I used the following technique to apply the Liquid Leading to the base of the clerestory. A large diameter sewing machine needle held in hemostats was used to apply the Liquid Leading. The stiffness and spring of the sewing needle will assist in the placement of the Liquid Leading. The needle can be positioned in the hemostats to the required angles prior to the application of the product. The needle, when dipped in water, will smooth the leading into a consistent smooth tar seam.

To assist new users with this product:

1) Place a small amount of Liquid Leading on a disposable object. I used a business card.
2) Apply the Liquid Leading to the base seams of the clerestory. Do not apply leading between the fascia and the mill roof above the chute wall.
3) Use a small brush and water to remove leading from the corrugated siding as needed. Do this prior to the Liquid Leading has a chance to set.
4) Use a damp Q-tip to smooth the leading seam and remove excess leading from the mill roof surface. Do this prior to the Liquid Leading has a chance to set.
5) Touch-up the corrugated siding with powdered soft pastes as needed.
6) Flood the clerestory sides and long wall with Deadflat to set the pastels. Use a small round brush to pull excess Deadflat solution down the mill roof following water flow patterns.

Liquid Leading applied to the clerestory side wall base.

Close-up of the Liquid Leading seam at the base of the clerestory long window wall.

Clerestory long window wall showing gap at base filled with simulated roofing tar. In additon, the corrugated siding has been touched-up after the application of the Liquid Leading.

-- KP --
Life is to short to build all of the models I want to.
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7237 Posts

Posted - 03/16/2016 :  5:40:49 PM  Show Profile  Reply with Quote
Well, since most of the following component is somewhat straight forward, I'll continue to try to add a few additional 'modelers' tips which were applied during the modeling process.

Mill Skylights
The Blazek plans http://blazeksplan.com/ show seven small skylights mounted in the mill roof. The dimensions of the skylights are 18x12 inches. The skylight window is mounted on a frame 24x12 inches. The distinct construction of the frame has the window hinge on the upper/high side of the frame with the window frame even with the top/high edge.

The other construction item to note is that the skylight window frames are mounted on side frames composed of elongated triangles to increase the the roof angle of the skylight. This increased angle would provide the window with a high angle slant to encourage water and snow runoff.

Fabricate the skylight base frames:
A) Evergreen Styrene HO Scale 4x6, #8406, 2-pc. http://www.evergreenscalemodels.com/Strips.htm#HO%20Scale%20Strips
B) Rusty Stumps HO Scale 32-foot long Wooden Ladder, #D1001. http://rustystumps.com/proddetail.asp?prod=D1001
C) Acetone http://www.amazon.com/Klean-Strip-Green-QAC18-Acetone-1-Quart/dp/B007VTRQ00

Styrene is the medium chosen for the frame due to the very small joint surface available. As styrene bonds via the solvent melting/welding the two surfaces together, the result will be no large joint seams due to excess glue escaping the joint like with wood applications. The quick drying time of the small amount of solvent used will also be of value. Styrene lends itself to being a bit easier to cut/sand to create the angles necessary to to form the increased angles in such small pieces. Finally, the 4x6 size will allow ease of use by simple position of the styrene strip face or edge.

I will note that after a bit of consideration, I decided to use a large dose of 'modeler's license' in the fabrication process, electing not to include the skylight frame angles. I just did not feel that the very small (2 scale inches) would really be noticed by viewers.

1) Actual window frames and muntins are created from the ladder. Remove one ladder from the carrier sheet. (BTW.. nice ladders Walt.)
2) Cut frames from the ladder. Use a #11 blade to cut the ladder into 2-pane windows. Cut 8 sets of of windows. This will allow one extra to practice coloring, etc. To cut the ladder accurately, place the heel of the blade against a ladder cross-rung and cut the side rail with a rocking motion of the blade.

Skylight 2-pane windows made from a ladder.

3) Add wood grain to the styrene strips. Use a wire brush or medium grit sandpaper to add wood grain to the styrene strips. Grain all four surfaces of the strips.
4) Use an acetone soaked rag to remove the 'fuzzies' from the strip styrene. Pull the strips through the rag with medium finger pressure on the rag & styrene.
5) Identify a piece of scrap strip wood to assist as a former when building the skylight frame. You want the former to be the height of the window muntins. I found that an O-sale 6x9 worked well.
6) Cut a piece of styrene the length/width of the window frame.

Styrene piece cut to length/width of window frame.

Take some time fabricating this styrene piece. Note that the styrene needs to be just short of the length of the window. This styrene piece will fit between the two side pieces making-up the skylight frame. You want the window muntins to sit on the side pieces, but without the side pieces being exposed under the windows.

Construct skylight frame:
1) Determine the width and length of the 4x6 styrene pieces, on edge, to create the frame for the muntins to sit on. I made mine so that I also have room for a piece of .015 diameter wire which will be used for form a hinge. Cut the required quantity of styrene pieces necessary to fabricate the the skylight frames.
8) Use the scrap wood former to assist in the construction of the skylight frames. Use squares to insure the skylights are square. Allow the completed frames to dry under weight on a flat surface.

Completed skylight frames showing approximately how muntins fit on top of the frames.

Note: I tried a couple of different ways to fabricate the skylight frame so that the window panes would sit at an increased angle. The 2-inch height difference did not create enough visual interest to warrant the required work. I also had no interest in casting the part to capture the angle detail. Thus... it is what it is.

Color and weather skylight frame:
A) Vallejo Model Color, Natural Wood, #183 http://www.acrylicosvallejo.com/en_US/model-color/family/15
B) Vallejo Model Color, German Camouflage Beige, #103
C) Vallejo Model Color, Offwhite, #004
D) Vallejo Model Air, Wood, #71077
E) Natural Sponge - small ragged piece.http://www.dickblick.com/products/royal-super-value-sponge-set

1) Using a small brush, paint the window muntins with the Airbrush paint. This was chosen as the paint is thinner and does not tend to obscure the muntins corners.
2) Paint the skylight frames the 'wood' color using the paint from the Model Color line. Allow to dry.
3) Repeat the wood coloring application on the skylight frame components. Allow to cure dry.
4) Add peeling paint. Using a small piece of natural sponge and a stippling stroke, randomly apply the the German camouflage beige to all skylight frame components, including both sides of the muntins. This is to represent a darker weathered wood. Allow to touch-dry.
Note: The sponge is pressed on a paper towel multiple times to obtain a 'dry-brush' prior to applying the paint to the skylights. It's also helpful to hold the sponge in tweezers or forceps when using the sponge.
5) Again, using a stippling and 'dry-brush' sponge, apply the offwhite paint to the components. This should present a weathered chipped/peeling paint effect on the skylight components. Allow to dry.
6) With a small brush, paint the inside of the skylight frame with the offwhite color. Allow to cure dry.

Apply window glazing:
A) For glass, I cut to fit and installed a piece of 3M Scotchcal Marking Film #8520 backing. This looks like acetate sprayed with a even layer of Dullcoat, but without the fuss. Obtain from sign company in your area. This is usually trash material.

1) Add glass to the muntins which were cut from the ladder and are now weathered. I used Aleene's Orig. Tacky Glue to glue the glass into place.

Prep the skylight details:
A) Prismacolor Ink Marker, Black, #PM-98.
B) Business card
C) Detail Associates Brass wire, .015 diameter, #2505.
D) Americana Burnt Sienna, #DA063

1) Use a soft #3 round to stipple a medium A-I wash onto all surfaces of the skylight frames. Seth the frames on a folded paper towel to wick away excess wash. Allow to dry.
2) Color the backside of a old business card with a strip of black ink from the Prismacolor marker. Make sure that the coloring is uniform as this will become the 'floor' of the skylights.
3) Cut a strip colored business card the width of the skylight frames from the business card.
4) Color the edges of the cut strip with the black marker. It's easier to color the edges now and will reduce the number of edges to color after the strip is cut to size.
5) Dip a small diameter wire into the burnt sienna paint. Twist/spin the wire against the inside of the paint bottleneck edge to obtain a smooth layer of paint on the wire. Set aside to cure dry.

Add 'floor' to the skylight frames:
Materials: N/A

1) Cut a single piece from the business card strip to fit the frame of the skylight.
2) Color the two freshly cut edges of the business card with the ink marker. One edge will be on the stock, the other edge on the 'floor' piece.
3) Repeat the process to fabricate 'floors' for all skylight frames.
4) Use Aleene's Orig. Tacky glue to attach the 'floor' to the bottom side of each skylight frame. Mount so the colored ink side will be viewed when looking into the completed skylight. If necessary, trim excess card stock from the skylight and touch up the 'floor' edges with the ink marker.

Skylight build components.

Skylight frames with 'floor' mounted.

Add skylight windows to frame:
Materials: N/A

I use a piece of 1/4 inch square wood glued to a glass plate as a edge guide when modeling.

1) Using a edge guide, mount the windows so the front opening edge is flush with the skylight frame.

Skylight construction sequence.

Place the windows in a open or closed position. Just make sure to have equal amounts of skylight frame exposed on each side of the window frames. I used Tacky glue to mount the window frames to the skylight frame.
Gluing Tips:
a) When applying the adhesive, place just a small amount on the end of a round toothpick. Place the toothpick and glue just inside the frame edge and roll the toothpick against the inside edge. This will put a small bead of glue on the top face of the frame along the edge. Mount the window. When pressure is applied to hold the window in position, the small amount of glue will not weep out of the glue seam.
b) Use a small piece of 1/8th inch square strip wood to trap the skylight frame between the wood guide and to hold the parts steady for the positioning of the window on top of the frame.

Use your fingers to hold the 1/8th inch sq wood strip (top) to steady the skylight while mounting the window.

Add skylight window hinge:
A) Pre-colored wire
B) Americana Burnt Sienna, #DA063
C) Powdered Pastels, rust color mix.
D) Rustall DeadFlat. http://www.rustall.com/product-info.html

1) Cut small pieces of the rust colored .015 wire to form a hinge for each window. The hinge should be just a bit shorter than the width of the window frame.
2) Lightly dip each cut wire end into the lid of the burnt sienna to color the cut wire ends.
3) Add a small amount of 'thin' ACC to the joint of the window/skylight frames. Place the wire in the seam. Make sure not to twist the the wire when positioning into place.
4) Attach the wire hinge to the skylight frame. Use a small amount of 'thin' ACC applied with a applicator to glue the wire into place.
Tip: Make a ACC applicator by cutting the eye of a large diameter sewing machine needle in half. (Wear eye protection when cutting the needle.) With pliers, push the needle point into a dowel or other handle. Paint the needle end of the handle with a red paint to help you identify the end with the needle. (The needle tends to be hard to see when the tool is flat on a workbench surface.) If the handle is round, loosely wrap a few rounds of masking tape around the handle top to keep the tool from rolling off the workbench.

Homemade ACC applicator.

Close-up of ACC applicator end to hold adhesive.

Tip: An alternative method to control the amount of ACC applied is to place a drop of the 'thin' ACC on a business card. Immediately drop the wire piece into the area where the ACC has absorbed into the business card and then immediately mount the wire in place on the skylight frame.

5) Touch-up the wire hinge with a small amount of rust colored soft pastel mix using a small stiff brush. This will add additional color tones and texture as well as rust streaking on the skylight frame sides. Do not use weathering powders for this application due to the adhesives contained in the weathering powder.
6) Set the powders with a acrylic flat medium like Deadflat using a small liner brush. Allow the completed skylights to dry.

Completed skylights.

Completed skylights set on plans to determine positioning of open units.

Fabricate skylight mounting guide:
A) Scrap card stock or matboard 6-inches or greater in length.

1) Determine distance from clerestory the skylights are to be mounted on mill roof.
2) Cut the card stock to width. Make sure that both long (length) edges are straight and parallel.

Mount the skylights on the mill roof:
A) Plaid Gallery Glass Liquid Leading, Black, #16025 https://www.plaidonline.com/gallery-glass-liquid-leading-black-2-oz/79/16025/product.htm

1) Prepare the Liquid Leading. Thin the leading to a consistency of fresh white glue. You want to be able to apply a thin coat of leading, but you want the leading to weep out of the joint simulating a tar seal around the skylight frame.
2) Using the skylight placement guide, glue the skylights into position using the liquid leading as the adhesive.
3) If needed, tease the leading to make a tar seal with a toothpick. Dipping the toothpick in water may make the leading easier to control.
4) Allow the mounted skylights to dry.

Skylight being placed into position using the guide.

Close-up of guide being used

Mounted skylights

Mounted skylights showing open skylights

Close-up of open skylights. Also note the tar seams.

Close-up of the hinges.

Add Rainwater Streaking:
A) MikeC's #8 Ink Stain http://www.rustystumps.com/HowToArticles.asp THANKS WALT!

1) Using a #8 soft round brush, apply rain/snow water streaking down the roof. Use a highly thinned wash to color the roof around the skylights. Simply load the brush and then lightly touch the brush to the bottom/lower edge of the skylight frame. The wash will flow around the frame.
2) Draw the brush down the roof with very light pressure to create the streaking.

(SORRY - Due to high winds outside, I'm currently unable to post pictures showing results. I'll post pictures in a few days when I'm able to take the model outside again.)

Well... that's it for now. Next up, stacks and chimneys. As always, comments are welcome on the good, bad and ugly.

-- KP --
Life is to short to build all of the models I want to.

Edited by - hon3_rr on 03/16/2016 8:59:32 PM
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8509 Posts

Posted - 03/16/2016 :  5:46:41 PM  Show Profile  Reply with Quote
I've been using those 'fork stick' ACC applicators for years. To clean the ACC crust, I just hold the tip in a cigarette lighter ("Bic") flame until the ACC catches fire and burns off. Occasionally, I clean off the built-up carbon with a knife.
Also, I have a really small jelly jar that I use to hold the ACC. It's filled with bb's to add weight (so it won't move around.) I flip it upside down, put a drop of ACC on the bottom, and then dip the 'fork stick' into it. I wipe off excess ACC when I'm done, and every other week or so, I remove the bb's and set the jar bottoms-down in a larger jar with acetone in it. I let it soak (larger jar sealed) overnight and then wipe off any excess acetone or ACC residue.


Modeling 1890s (because the voices in my head told me to)
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8807 Posts

Posted - 03/16/2016 :  5:52:46 PM  Show Profile  Reply with Quote
Kris, nice work on those skylights.
With each new component added, it looks even more spectacular!
Keep up the great work!

Greg Shinnie
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George D

16198 Posts

Posted - 03/16/2016 :  8:08:41 PM  Show Profile  Reply with Quote
Kris, I'm just getting caught up with your work. Our roof weathering really captures the look of a dirty rusty roof. That's the first I've heard of coloring epoxy with acrylic paint. A very useful tip.

Thanks for the continued detailed how to. This is a very informative thread.

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6083 Posts

Posted - 03/16/2016 :  8:46:26 PM  Show Profile  Reply with Quote
Fantastic work Kris'.. The three roofs each with their own uniqueness look completely real'..Your detailed SBS is completely thorough'..and appreciated'..

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12637 Posts

Posted - 03/16/2016 :  11:26:03 PM  Show Profile  Reply with Quote
Well this just gets more fantastic as you go along.

Each new post brings us something new and clever techniques.

Thanks for all your time in telling us how this was done.


"And in the end, itís not the years in your life that count. It's the life in your years." A. Lincoln
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4057 Posts

Posted - 03/17/2016 :  06:15:52 AM  Show Profile  Reply with Quote
KP, Outstanding work and it gets better every time you add something to it. I especially like the roofs. [:-thumbu][:-thumbu]


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1911 Posts

Posted - 03/17/2016 :  10:15:48 AM  Show Profile  Send Guff an AOL message  Reply with Quote
Exceptional work on a major building project. The weathering, stonework, roofing are all first class!!!

David Guffey
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7237 Posts

Posted - 03/23/2016 :  7:02:10 PM  Show Profile  Reply with Quote
Thanks All for the comments.
Due to moving to new digs, modeling time has been very limited, and I'm even shorter on time currently. Thus, just a real quick update, and I'll post a more detailed how-to once I get the new studio set-up.

I decided to use the suggestions provided by Greg (Ensign) a few months back to make the seam lines in the stacks. See the thread referenced on page on of this build: http://www.railroad-line.com/forum/topic.asp?TOPIC_ID=44474

I also decided to try to use both an aluminum and a brass tube to see if there was any major differences noticed when weathering the tube. The larger stack is a brass tube, the smaller diameter, but taller stack is aluminum.

In the first picture if you look closely, you can see the seams in the tube made with the tube cutter. http://www3.towerhobbies.com/cgi-bin/wti0001p?&I=LXR790

Seam lines in brass tube can be seen prior to painting the tube.

You can see both tubes with seams in the next picture.

Aluminum and brass tubes scored with seams.

Next, after the collar was added, I painted and weathered the stacks. I then mounted the stacks in the mill roof. I'll come back and add tension lines to the taller stack once the diorama base is constructed.

Both stacks mounted in the mill roof.

In the following picture, you can get a sense of the weathering applied to the stacks. Note the small band of the lighter color towards the base of the taller stack.

A quick look at the weathering of the stacks and mill roof.

Finally, I wanted to note that I found that the balsa foam can take perfect die impressions. I tapped the two tubes into the 1-inch thick balsa foam II to make a quick drying stand while I paint/weathered the stacks. I did not mean to go all the way through the foam, but just a couple of light taps on the tubes created the holes in the foam. I just blew out the foam from inside the tubes prior to painting and weathering. My point is here that this may make it really easy to make square windows or doors using a square brass tube or styrene as a dye.

Holes in foam from tubes.

Well, told you this was going to be a short entry, but didn't want folks thinking that I've forgotten to keep you up to date. It may be a couple of weeks till my next update due to my move, but until then comments on the good, bad and ugly are always welcome.

-- KP --
Life is to short to build all of the models I want to.
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